Questions & Answers

* Explain what is Windows Server?

Window server is a series of server operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation.

* Explain what is the primary function of the domain controller?

Primary function of the domain controller is to validate users to the networks, it also provide a catalog of Active Directory Objects.

* Explain what is SYSVOL folder?

It is a set of files and folders that is stored on the local hard disk of each domain controller in a domain and are replicated by the FRS ( File

Replication Service). These files contain group or user policy information.

* Explain what is RAID in Windows Server?

For storing same data at a different place RAID or Redundant Array of Independent Disks strategy is used. It is a strategy for building fault

tolerance and increase the storage capacity. On separate drives it allows you to combine one or more volumes so that they are accessed by a

single drive letter

* Explain where is the AD database is held?

AD database is saved in %systemroot%/ntds. Files that controls the AD structure are


* Explain what is the major difference between NTFS ( New Technology File System) or FAT (File Allocation Table) on a local server?

For local users FAT (File Allocation Table) and FAT32 provides security, while NTFS ( New Technology File System) provides security for

domain users as well as local users. NTFS provides file level security which is not possible through FAT32.

* What is VLAN?
VLAN Stand for Virtual Local Area Network. It is a logical grouping of network users and resources connected to administratively defined ports

on a switch.
Uses of VLAN are as follows:-
1. It is secured connection.
2. It reduces cost for any network.
3. It increases flexibility.
4. On a network, sensitive data may be broadcast. In such cases, it provides security only those users who have access to the data.
4. It creates separate broadcast domain.

* What is the use of Global Catalog?
A Global Catalog is something that each domain has, and it is used for authenticating the user on the network, on windows 2000 network

logon’s were protected from failures by assigning a Global Catalog to every site. It stores a copy of all Active Directory objects in a forest. The

global catalog stores a full copy of all objects in the directory for its host domain and a partial copy of all objects for all other domains in the


* What is role of active directory?
Active directory is a domain controller which is use to authenticate and administrate the group of computer, user, server etc. The active

Directory means a service that identifies and handles resources, making them visible for different groups or members that are authorized. All the

policies and security will be applicable on the client machine which one is join the domain and all this policies and security is defined in active


* What is the role of Proxy Server?
A proxy server is a computer that acts as an intermediary between a local network and a larger-scale network such as the Internet. Proxy servers

provide increased performance and security. In some cases, they monitor employees’ use of outside resources. A proxy server is associated

with or part of a gateway server that separates the enterprise network from the outside network and a firewall server that protects the enterprise

network from outside intrusion.

* What are the role Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast?
Unicast is a kind of transmission in which data is sent from one host to another host. Unicast transmission is one-to-one communications.
Unicast -> A transmission to a single port.
Multicast is different from Unicast. It’s a transmission where data can be sent to more host. Where information is sent to multiple receiver.
On the other hand, In Broadcast data is sent by one host but received by all the hosted connected with it.

* Incremental vs Differential backups
Incremental backup – Will take the backup of files whose archive bits are set and resets it after backup
Differential backup – Will take the backup of files whose archive bits are set but does not reset it after backup

* Windows 2003 vs Windows 2008

WDS instead of RIS
Services have been changed as roles – server manager
Introduction of hyper V- only on 64 bit versions
Enhanced event viewer
Bitlocker feature
Server core installation without GUI
MMC 3.0, with three pane view
Key management services(KMS) to activate Windows OS without connecting to Microsoft site
Performance enhancement using technologies like Windows SuperFetch,ReadyBoost and Readydrive
Windows Aero user interface
Instant search
Support for IPv6 in DNS

*FSMO roles

Schema Master
Domain naming master
Infrastructure master
PDC Emulator
RID master

* Can you explain Netlogon services ?
The Netlogon services help the client servers to connect to the Domain

*What is GPT and GPC?

A GPO (Group Policy Object) is a collection of Group Policy settings, it consists of GPC and GPT.

GPC (Group Policy Container) contains the information of property of GPO like Security Filtering, GPO Status, GPO GUID etc.
GPT (Group Policy Template) contains the data of GPO in Sysvol folder that can be checked after the configuration of the GPO that what

settings have been configured to the client.

* What is NLB?

NLB (Network Load Balance) is a Microsoft implementation of clustering and load balancing that is intended to provide high availability and

high reliability, as well as high scalability.

Booting sequence in windows 2008?

* Here’s the brief description of Windows Server 2008 Boot process.

System is powered on
The CMOS loads the BIOS and then runs POST
Looks for the MBR on the bootable device
Through the MBR the boot sector is located and the BOOTMGR is loaded
BOOTMGR looks for active partition
BOOTMGR reads the BCD file from the \boot directory on the active partition
The BCD (boot configuration database) contains various configuration parameters( this information was previously stored in the boot.ini)
BOOTMGR transfer control to the Windows Loader (winload.exe) or winresume.exe in case the system was hibernated.
Winloader loads drivers that are set to start at boot and then transfers the control to the windows kernel.

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