Category: Windows(2003/2008/2012)

Remote Desktop Protocol

Developed by Microsoft, which concerns providing a user with a graphical interface to another computer. By default the server listens on TCP port 3389.

Switch to connect to server console via RDP.

on RDP Client v5, use mstsc /Console
on RDP Client v6, use mstsc /admin

Here is the screenshot showing the difference between RDP Client v5 & v6

This is RDP Client v5
RDP Client Version 5

This is RDP Client v6
RDP Client Version 6

Filed under: Windows(2003/2008/2012)Tagged with: , , ,

Physical Address Extension (PAE) in Windows:

PAE switch is the added ability of the IA32 processor to address more than 4 GB of physical memory. The following operating systems can use PAE to take advantage of physical memory beyond 4 GB:

Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
Microsoft Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition
Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition
To enable PAE, use the /PAE switch in the Boot.ini file.

The following is an example of a Boot.ini file where the PAE switch has been added:

[boot loader]
timeout=30
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINDOWS
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINDOWS="Windows Server 2003, Enterprise" /fastdetect /PAE

Note: In Windows Server 2003, PAE is automatically enabled only if the server is using hot-add memory devices.

Filed under: Windows(2003/2008/2012)

Windows Registry

The Registry is a central location for unique user and machine configuration data. In basic terms, it is a big database that holds all of the Windows configuration information – settings relative to user accounts, machine hardware and applications. The registry was brought about to replace the old .INI files.

To open the Registry Editor, click Start > Run… and type “regedit.exe”.

The structure of the registry, which is made up of five subtrees.

=> HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT -> This subtree contains data that associates file types with applications and configuration for COM objects.

=> HKEY_LOCAL_USER -> Also known to have the common abbreviation HKCU, the HKEY_LOCAL_USER subtree contains settings and preferences for the user currently logged on to the system. These settings are dynamic and unique to each user.

=> HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE -> Also known to have the common abbreviation HKLM, the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE subtree contains information about the hardware currently installed, and the settings for systems running on the machine. These are normally static for all users until a change is made.

=> HKEY_USERS -> This subtree simply contains a pointer to HKEY_LOCAL_USER and the DEFAULT user profile (a template used when assigning a profile to new users).

=> HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG -> This subtree stores configuration data for the current hardware profile and points to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Hardware Profiles

Data Types defined by the Registry

=> REG_SZ -> A simple string value. Would usually contain a URL, Path, or port number for example.

=> REG_BINARY -> Raw binary data represented in hexadecimal format.

=> REG_DWORD -> Another type of REG_BINARY but this one is 4 bytes long.

=> REG_MULTI_SZ -> A character string of variable size that allows you to enter a number of parameters in this single value entry.

=> REG_EXPAND_SZ -> This is a character string of variable size that can contain dynamic information which will change at startup (such as %username% which is of a different size for every name).

Remote Registry Configuration

Regedit.exe allows you to remotely configure another machine’s registry quickly and easily. All you need is the right permissions (Administrator permissions) to do so.

Open regedit.exe and from the File menu select “Connect Network Registry…”. Type the computer name, or press [Advanced…] and search for one, and press OK. After entering the correct credentials, the registry of the remote machine is loaded into the console, as if it was that of the local machine.

When you connect to a registry remotely, you will only be able to edit the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_USERS keys.

Registry Backup

From the Backup tab, expand My Computer and select the System State check box. On a domain controller, backing up the System State will also backup Active Directory, Boot Files, Certificate Server (if installed), COM object class registries, and SYSVOL, apart from the full Registry.

Register website for Rs: 240 Only

Filed under: Windows(2003/2008/2012)

Keyboard Shortcuts within Remote Desktop

When you are in a remote desktop window the keyboards shortcuts you have become familiar with change slightly. Here are a few of the more common ones:

ALT+PAGE UP – Switches between programs from left to right.
CTRL+ESC – Switches the client between a window and full screen.
ALT+HOME – Displays the Start menu.
CTRL+ALT+MINUS (–) – Places a snapshot of the active window in the Remote Desktop session on the clipboard.
CTRL+ALT+PLUS (+) – Places a snapshot of the entire Remote Desktop session window on the clipboard.
CTRL+ALT+END – Displays the Task Manager

Filed under: Windows(2003/2008/2012)

Troubleshoot DNS

1. Check for network connectivity.

2. Verify your DNS server IP addresses are correct and in order.

3. Ping the IP address of the host you are trying to get to (if it is known).

4. Find out what DNS server is being used with nslookup.

5. Check your DNS suffix.

6. Make sure that your DNS settings are configured to pull the DNS IP from the DHCP server.

7. Release and renew your DHCP Server IP address (and DNS information).

8. Check the DNS Server and restart services or reboot if necessary.

9. Reboot your small office / home DNS router.

10. Contact your ISP.

Summary:

DNS resolution is a critical piece of our network infrastructure and it must work properly for our network applications to function.

Filed under: Windows(2003/2008/2012)Tagged with: ,

Windows Utilities

1. ListDLLs

List all the DLLs that are currently loaded, including where they are loaded and their version numbers. Version 2.0 prints the full path names of loaded modules.

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb896656.aspx

2. Process Explorer v12.04

Ever wondered which program has a particular file or directory open? Now you can find out. Process Explorer shows you information about which handles and DLLs processes have opened or loaded.

http://download.sysinternals.com/Files/ProcessExplorer.zip

3. PsExec v1.98

Execute processes on remote systems.

http://download.sysinternals.com/Files/PsTools.zip

4. LogonSessions

List the active logon sessions on a system.

http://download.sysinternals.com/Files/LogonSessions.zip

5. AdRestore v1.1

Windows Server 2003 introduces the ability to restore deleted ("tombstoned") objects.

http://download.sysinternals.com/Files/AdRestore.zip

6. RAMMap

An advanced physical memory usage analysis utility that presents usage information in different ways on its several different tabs.

http://download.sysinternals.com/Files/RAMMap.zip

Filed under: Windows(2003/2008/2012)

Windows Command (Handy)

Handy command for Windows

=> shutdown -r -t 60 -c “Rebooting computer”
Reboot in 60 seconds, with a comment to the popup
=> shutdown -a
To abort shutdown.

=> NET VIEW
This command’s output lists each computer on the network, first by network name and second by description.

=> GETMAC
Quickly and diligently, your PC’s MAC address appears.

=> Start.
Open explorer from command prompt.

=> CACLS
Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files.

=> SET L
To view your logon server name.

=> netdom query /domain:dpetri fsmo
=> dsquery server -hasfsmo schema
To view the FSMO roles in a domain.

=> Net start
View the services up and running

=> F7 (In DOS command prompt)
For a history of commands.

=> net statistics workstation / net statistics server
One way of finding out how long the box has been up for.

=> WMIC OS get /all /format:htable
Find whatever you want from remote machine, local machine… multiple machines.
Nicely filled out HTML page with all data related to OS.

=> wmic bios get serialnumber

Displays the Serial number for the current machine.

=> SET

Displays, sets, or removes Windows environment variables. Type SET without parameters to display the current environment variables. (Ex: Used to find the number of processor and type).

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Filed under: Windows(2003/2008/2012)

Basic Vs Dynamic Disk

Basic Vs Dynamic Disk

Basic Disk supported by all Windows Operating Systems.
Dynamic Disk supported by later version of windows including 2000, XP, 2003, etc.

Volume changes can be done on dynamic disk without reboot.
Any file system can be used for both the disks.
One can convert basic disk to dynamic. However, if you’ve converted the disk to dynamic, you cant revert to basic without first wiping and recreating the volume.

Basic disks contains primary partitions, extended partition and logical drives. Primary partition in Windows NT can support stripping and software RAID sets. However, in 2000, XP and 2003 dont support stripping and software RAID.

Dynamic Disks can create different type of volumes with dynamic disks.
Simple Volume -> Use space from single disk or hardware array volume.
Spanned Volume -> Non fault tolerant disk sets that use free space from multiple disk.
Striped Volume -> Non fault tolerant disk that stripe data across multiple disks.
Mirrored Volume -> Fault tolarent disk set that mirror data from one to another disk.
RAID 5 Volume -> Fault tolarent disk that stipes data across three or more disks including parity.

Filed under: Storage (EMC/NetApp), Windows(2003/2008/2012)

RAID

Short for Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks, a category of disk drives that employ two or more drives in combination for fault tolerance and performance. RAID disk drives are used frequently on servers but aren’t generally necessary for personal computers. RAID allows you to store the same data redundantly (in multiple paces) in a balanced ay to improve overall performance.

There are number of different RAID levels:

  • Level 0 — Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance: Provides data striping (spreading out blocks of each file across multiple disk drives) but no redundancy. This improves performance but does not deliver fault tolerance. If one drive fails then all data in the array is lost.
  • Level 1 — Mirroring and Duplexing: Provides disk mirroring. Level 1 provides twice the read transaction rate of single disks and the same write transaction rate as single disks.
  • Level 2 — Error-Correcting Coding: Not a typical implementation and rarely used, Level 2 stripes data at the bit level rather than the block level.
  • Level 3 — Bit-Interleaved Parity: Provides byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. Level 3, which cannot service simultaneous multiple requests, also is rarely used.
  • Level 4 — Dedicated Parity Drive: A commonly used implementation of RAID, Level 4 provides block-level striping (like Level 0) with a parity disk. If a data disk fails, the parity data is used to create a replacement disk. A disadvantage to Level 4 is that the parity disk can create write bottlenecks.
  • Level 5 — Block Interleaved Distributed Parity: Provides data striping at the byte level and also stripe error correction information. This results in excellent performance and good fault tolerance. Level 5 is one of the most popular implementations of RAID.
  • Level 6 — Independent Data Disks with Double Parity: Provides block-level striping with parity data distributed across all disks.
  • Level 0+1 — A Mirror of Stripes: Not one of the original RAID levels, two RAID 0 stripes are created, and a RAID 1 mirror is created over them. Used for both replicating and sharing data among disks.
  • Level 10 — A Stripe of Mirrors: Not one of the original RAID levels, multiple RAID 1 mirrors are created, and a RAID 0 stripe is created over these.
  • Level 7: A trademark of Storage Computer Corporation that adds caching to Levels 3 or 4.
  • RAID S: (also called Parity RAID) EMC Corporation’s proprietary striped parity RAID system used in its Symmetrix storage systems.
Filed under: Storage (EMC/NetApp), Windows(2003/2008/2012)

NIC Teaming

NIC Teaming using HP NCU.

1. Perform the initial installation of HP Network Configuration Utility (NCU) and open the utility.
2. Select the network adapter ports for a team.
From the NCU main page, highlight two or more network adapter ports. Then, click the Team icon.
3. Set the team type Automatic.
a. Click the Properties icon on the NCU main page for the newly formed team (white team icon).
b. Under Team Type Selection on the Teaming Controls tab, notice that Automatic (Recommended) is
already chosen. This is the default setting for new teams.
c. Note the name assigned to the team in the Team Name window (for example, HP Network Team #1).
d. (Optional) Rename the team by changing the text in the Team Name window.
e. Click the OK button on the Team Properties page when finished.
4. Apply all changes.
a. Click the OK button on the NCU main page.
b. Click Yes when asked if all configuration changes should be applied.
c. Wait until the All Configuration Changes Were Made Successfully dialog box appears.
5. Assign an IP address to the team.
a. Open the Network Connections (in other words, Network and Dial-up Connections) window from the Control Panel.
b. Under Device Name (in the Details view), open the Properties page for the device with the same name as noted in step 3.
c. Assign the appropriate IP address information based on the connected network requirements.

Filed under: HP (Servers/products), Windows(2003/2008/2012)