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HP SUM (System Update Manager) utility is used to install the latest available updates for firmware and softwares installed on HP servers. On excecuting the HPsum.exe it will ask for the location of the updated available. Browse the desired location and choose the available options as mentioned below:
2. Firmware Only
3. Software Only
Click on "Start Inventory" and on next screen choose "local host or remote host".
Utility will check for the latest updates and will show the results with the options for Bundle filter as displyed below:
1. Allow non-bundle versions
2. Allow non-bundle products
3. Force All bundle updates
You can force reboot after installation. Once, done your server is update with latest software and firmware updates.
PAE switch is the added ability of the IA32 processor to address more than 4 GB of physical memory. The following operating systems can use PAE to take advantage of physical memory beyond 4 GB:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
Microsoft Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition
Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition
To enable PAE, use the /PAE switch in the Boot.ini file.
The following is an example of a Boot.ini file where the PAE switch has been added:
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINDOWS="Windows Server 2003, Enterprise" /fastdetect /PAE
Note: In Windows Server 2003, PAE is automatically enabled only if the server is using hot-add memory devices.
The Registry is a central location for unique user and machine configuration data. In basic terms, it is a big database that holds all of the Windows configuration information – settings relative to user accounts, machine hardware and applications. The registry was brought about to replace the old .INI files.
To open the Registry Editor, click Start > Run… and type “regedit.exe”.
The structure of the registry, which is made up of five subtrees.
=> HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT -> This subtree contains data that associates file types with applications and configuration for COM objects.
=> HKEY_LOCAL_USER -> Also known to have the common abbreviation HKCU, the HKEY_LOCAL_USER subtree contains settings and preferences for the user currently logged on to the system. These settings are dynamic and unique to each user.
=> HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE -> Also known to have the common abbreviation HKLM, the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE subtree contains information about the hardware currently installed, and the settings for systems running on the machine. These are normally static for all users until a change is made.
=> HKEY_USERS -> This subtree simply contains a pointer to HKEY_LOCAL_USER and the DEFAULT user profile (a template used when assigning a profile to new users).
=> HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG -> This subtree stores configuration data for the current hardware profile and points to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Hardware Profiles
Data Types defined by the Registry
=> REG_SZ -> A simple string value. Would usually contain a URL, Path, or port number for example.
=> REG_BINARY -> Raw binary data represented in hexadecimal format.
=> REG_DWORD -> Another type of REG_BINARY but this one is 4 bytes long.
=> REG_MULTI_SZ -> A character string of variable size that allows you to enter a number of parameters in this single value entry.
=> REG_EXPAND_SZ -> This is a character string of variable size that can contain dynamic information which will change at startup (such as %username% which is of a different size for every name).
Remote Registry Configuration
Regedit.exe allows you to remotely configure another machine’s registry quickly and easily. All you need is the right permissions (Administrator permissions) to do so.
Open regedit.exe and from the File menu select “Connect Network Registry…”. Type the computer name, or press [Advanced…] and search for one, and press OK. After entering the correct credentials, the registry of the remote machine is loaded into the console, as if it was that of the local machine.
When you connect to a registry remotely, you will only be able to edit the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_USERS keys.
From the Backup tab, expand My Computer and select the System State check box. On a domain controller, backing up the System State will also backup Active Directory, Boot Files, Certificate Server (if installed), COM object class registries, and SYSVOL, apart from the full Registry.
When you are in a remote desktop window the keyboards shortcuts you have become familiar with change slightly. Here are a few of the more common ones:
ALT+PAGE UP – Switches between programs from left to right.
CTRL+ESC – Switches the client between a window and full screen.
ALT+HOME – Displays the Start menu.
CTRL+ALT+MINUS (–) – Places a snapshot of the active window in the Remote Desktop session on the clipboard.
CTRL+ALT+PLUS (+) – Places a snapshot of the entire Remote Desktop session window on the clipboard.
CTRL+ALT+END – Displays the Task Manager
1. Check for network connectivity.
2. Verify your DNS server IP addresses are correct and in order.
3. Ping the IP address of the host you are trying to get to (if it is known).
4. Find out what DNS server is being used with nslookup.
5. Check your DNS suffix.
6. Make sure that your DNS settings are configured to pull the DNS IP from the DHCP server.
7. Release and renew your DHCP Server IP address (and DNS information).
8. Check the DNS Server and restart services or reboot if necessary.
9. Reboot your small office / home DNS router.
10. Contact your ISP.
DNS resolution is a critical piece of our network infrastructure and it must work properly for our network applications to function.
List all the DLLs that are currently loaded, including where they are loaded and their version numbers. Version 2.0 prints the full path names of loaded modules.
2. Process Explorer v12.04
Ever wondered which program has a particular file or directory open? Now you can find out. Process Explorer shows you information about which handles and DLLs processes have opened or loaded.
3. PsExec v1.98
Execute processes on remote systems.
List the active logon sessions on a system.
5. AdRestore v1.1
Windows Server 2003 introduces the ability to restore deleted ("tombstoned") objects.
An advanced physical memory usage analysis utility that presents usage information in different ways on its several different tabs.
Handy command for Windows
=> shutdown -r -t 60 -c “Rebooting computer”
Reboot in 60 seconds, with a comment to the popup
=> shutdown -a
To abort shutdown.
=> NET VIEW
This command’s output lists each computer on the network, first by network name and second by description.
Quickly and diligently, your PC’s MAC address appears.
Open explorer from command prompt.
Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files.
=> SET L
To view your logon server name.
=> netdom query /domain:dpetri fsmo
=> dsquery server -hasfsmo schema
To view the FSMO roles in a domain.
=> Net start
View the services up and running
=> F7 (In DOS command prompt)
For a history of commands.
=> net statistics workstation / net statistics server
One way of finding out how long the box has been up for.
=> WMIC OS get /all /format:htable
Find whatever you want from remote machine, local machine… multiple machines.
Nicely filled out HTML page with all data related to OS.
=> wmic bios get serialnumber
Displays the Serial number for the current machine.
Displays, sets, or removes Windows environment variables. Type SET without parameters to display the current environment variables. (Ex: Used to find the number of processor and type).
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NAS – Network Attached Storage:
1. Any machine that can connect to the LAN can use NFS, CIFS or HTTP protocol to connect to a NAS and share files.
2. A NAS identifies data by file name.
3. NAS allows greated sharing of information between disperate Operating systems such as Unix and NT.
4. File System handled by NAS head unit.
5. Backups and mirrors are done on files and not on blocks for savings in bandwidth and time.
SAN – Storage Area Network:
1. Only server class devices with SCSI Fibre channel can connect to the SAN.
2. SAN address data by disk block number and transfer raw disk blocks.
3. File sharing is operating system dependent and does not exist in many Operating systems.
4. File system handled by servers.
5. Backups and mirrors requires a block by block copy even if the block is empty.
Types of networks supported
NAS uses TCP/IP Networks: Ethernet, FDDI, ATM (perhaps TCP/IP over Fiber Channel someday)
SAN uses Fiber Channel
NAS uses TCP/IP and NFS/CIFS/HTTP
SAN uses Encapsulated SCSI
NAS works best for these types of applications:
Users’ home directories
E-mail repositories, such as enterprise .PST files
GRID computing (using 10 Gigabit Ethernet)
Peer-to-peer data sharing
SAN works best for these types of applications:
Basic Vs Dynamic Disk
Basic Disk supported by all Windows Operating Systems.
Dynamic Disk supported by later version of windows including 2000, XP, 2003, etc.
Volume changes can be done on dynamic disk without reboot.
Any file system can be used for both the disks.
One can convert basic disk to dynamic. However, if you’ve converted the disk to dynamic, you cant revert to basic without first wiping and recreating the volume.
Basic disks contains primary partitions, extended partition and logical drives. Primary partition in Windows NT can support stripping and software RAID sets. However, in 2000, XP and 2003 dont support stripping and software RAID.
Dynamic Disks can create different type of volumes with dynamic disks.
Simple Volume -> Use space from single disk or hardware array volume.
Spanned Volume -> Non fault tolerant disk sets that use free space from multiple disk.
Striped Volume -> Non fault tolerant disk that stripe data across multiple disks.
Mirrored Volume -> Fault tolarent disk set that mirror data from one to another disk.
RAID 5 Volume -> Fault tolarent disk that stipes data across three or more disks including parity.